I have recently been pursuing conclusions which can be made from the tests which were conducted during the Ki-61's development. -both of these quotes came from an encyclopedia volume in a local library Many websites include the same passage: Here: and here: ...both can be found after only minutes of searching. The interesting concept here is that we have a "link" between a Japanese fighter and several Western fighters. By using logical relativity (if A is greater than B, and B is greater than C, then A is greater than C), we can determine how a Ki-61-I would have performed against fighters which it may never have faced, all through the use of "mediums:" the P-40E and Me-109 E-3. Relativity #1: the Ki-61-I has a better turning circle than the Me-109 E-3 Reason: above data Relativity #2: the Ki-61-I has a better turning circle than the P-40E Reason: above data Relativity #3: the Ki-61-I has a better turning circle than the P-38 Reason: Eric Bergerud's Fire in the Sky: The Air War in the South Pacific has a quote from Robert DeHaven, a P-40 pilot who later flew the P-38. Dehaven: If the Ki-61 was more maneuverable than the P-40, and the P-40 was more maneuverable than the P-38, then the Ki-61 was more maneuverable than the P-38. Relativity #4: the Ki-61-I has a better turning circle than the P-39 Reason: this source The P-39N and the P-40N are almost identical to their earlier counterparts, in terms of weight and power. Additionally, the source states that both the P-39 and the P-40 had a similar advantage over the P-51B in a turning circle. This leads one to believe that the two planes had roughly the same turning ability. Therefore, if the Ki-61-I could easily out turn the P-40, and the P-40 had roughly the same maneuverability of the P-39, the Ki-61-I could out turn the P-39. I admit that this is a long stretch as far as relativity is concerned, but even if the P-39 were slightly better than the P-40 in a turning circle, the fact that the Ki-61-I could easily out turn the P-40 and that the P-39 could only slightly out turn the P-40 would imply that the Ki-61-I would still be able to out turn the P-39. Relativity #5: the Ki-61-I has a better turning circle than the P-51 Reason: this source This relativity is based upon the previous example. If the Ki-61-I could out turn the P-40, and the P-40 could out turn the P-51, then the Ki-61-I could out turn the P-51. The Ki-61-I would most likely out turn the P-51D as well, because the P-51D was heavier than the P-51B with the same size wing. Relativity #6: the Ki-61-I has a better turning circle than the Me-109 G Reason: this site Though this article does not name any version of the Me-109 in particular, the History Channel show, which covered this very dogfight, stated that the 109 in question was a 109 G and that the nose gun was a 30mm, not a 20mm. I find it interesting how the quoted article appears to be taken from a personal account of Bud Anderson, but it differs from an actual television interview of the same person recalling the same event. In any case, the P-51B was shown to be capable of out turning the Me-109 G. If the Ki-61-I could out turn the P-51B, and the P-51B could out turn the Me-109 G, then the Ki-61-I could out turn the Me-109 G. Though this connection may seem loose, bear in mind that the Ki-61-I could also out turn the Me-109 E-3 which was, by far, lighter and more maneuverable than the Me-109 G series. Still further, there was this post comparing the turning circles of the P-51B to the Me-109 G: Relativity #7: the Ki-61-I has a better turning circle than the Hawker Tempest Reason: this post The Mustang which is mentioned in the quotation is a P-51B. If the Ki-61-I could out turn the P-51B, and the P-51B could out turn the Tempest, then the Ki-61-I could out turn the Tempest. Relativity #8: the Ki-61-I has a better turning circle than the Hawker Typhoon Reason: this post This is another somewhat vague description of turn comparison. I can still make a judgement based upon the fact that the Tempest is out turned by the P-51B, which is out turned by the P-40, which is out turned by the Ki-61-I. This means that the gap between the Tempest and the Ki-61-I is large enough to suggest that the Typhoon would also be out turned by the Ki-61-I, even if it were slightly better than the Tempest. Relativity #9: the Ki-61-I has a better turning circle than the FW-190 Reason: this post This was the result of a turn comparison between the Tempest and FW-190. Even if this FW-190 has a turning circle which is identical to the Tempest's, it is still inferior to the P-51B, which is inferior to the P-40, which is inferior to the Ki-61-I. The only problem here is that the version of the FW-190 is not given (though I am led to believe it is a FW-190 A-3), but there are so many relativity gaps between the FW-190 and the Ki-61-I that I am confident that the sum of these gaps gives the Ki-61-I a great turning advantage over all 190's.